The Effects of TGF-β3 on the Proliferation and Function of Encapsulated Costal Cartilage Chondrocytes in Alginate Scaffold

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Anatomy and Molecular Biology, Medicine School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

2 Department of Anatomical Sciences, Paramedical School, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran

3 Student Research Committee, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

4 Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Damages to cartilage are one of the most challenging issues of orthopedist in medicine as the healing of defects in the tissue has a very slow process and is extremely difficult. Tissue engineering (using scaffold), cells and growth factors can be used as alternatives to improve healing. Alginate is an ideal scaffold which has been also approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The transforming growth factor β3 (TGF β3) increases the viability of the chondrocytes and secretion of extra cellular matrix. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of TGF β3 in the viability and production of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and aggrecan by rib chondrocytes.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, isolated costal chondrocytes were encapsulated in alginate and cultured for 3 weeks. Then, samples were divided into 2 groups: TGF-β3 treated and control groups. Finally, the viability of chondrocytes and production of GAG and aggrecan in both groups were evaluated by MTT, GAG and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: By 14 days, the results of the MTT showed that viability had significantly increased in the control group in compared to the TGF-β3 treated group. This is while by 21 days, the TGF-β3 treated group the viability had increased After 14 and 21 days, the GAG production in the TGF-β3 treated group had significantly increased in compared to the control group. The ELISA technique revealed that the production of aggrecan significantly increased in the TGF-β3 treated group at 14 days.
Conclusions: Results indicate that TGF-β3 can increase the growth of costal cartilage and the production of extracellular matrix (ECM). Accordingly, TGF-β3 is necessary for the regeneration of cartilage.