Identification and Distribution of Anaerobic Responsive Elements (AREs) in Genes Functional Categorization of Arabidopsis thaliana

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of New Technologies and Energy Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Damghan Branch, Damghan, Iran


The evolution of biota had been tightly linked with formation of atmospheric di-oxygen (O2).Since the shift from anaerobic to aerobic life results in reprogramming gene expression through the regulatory interactions between transcription factors and their target sequences, the anaerobic responsive elements (AREs). The purpose of this study is to consider AREs; the most frequent and divergent motif in comparison to eighty four plant cis-regulatory elements, in order to clarify their biological function in Arabidopsis thaliana. A genome wide survey revealed the frequency, occurrence number and positional state of each anaerobic element in Arabidopsis genome. The evidence was obtained that among all AREs, TTCCCTGTT, (A/C/G)AAAAACAAA and AGCAGC in silico discovered elements, are noteworthy responsive elements in Arabidopsis. In addition to, our data suggest that the evolutionary process of anaerobic responsive elements may have been directed toward gradual decrease in occurrence numbers of AREs and gradual increase of their ineffectiveness in Arabidopsis genome. We also classified Arabidopsis genes according to existence of ARE elements in promoter regions of them to seven main groups including expression, primary metabolism, secondary metabolism, signaling, growth and development, stress and misc.