Application of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in Periodontal Regeneration: A Systematic Review

Document Type : Systematic Review


1 School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Dentofacial Deformities Research Center, Research Institute of Dental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: The present study systematically reviews the studies on the application and effect of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in the regeneration of periodontal defect in animal and human models.
Materials and Methods: The databases of PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Embase, and ProQuest, as well as the Web of Science were searched for relevant published articles in English without time limit until August 2022. The eligibility criteria were the studies focusing on the use and effect of PDLSCs on periodontal regeneration. Exclusion criteria included the articles which did not report the extent of periodontal regeneration, and those failing to provide flow cytometry and differentiation tests to prove the stemness of PDLSCs.
Results: In this review, 27 animal and 4 human studies meet the eligibility criteria. Human samples had periodontal disease, and various surgical periodontal defects had been created in the animals (mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, and sheep). Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity in study designs. Based on the literature review, there was inconsistency in the limited number of conducted human research. However, cementum, PDL, and bone regeneration increased in animal models in the PDLSCs group compared to the control ones. No complication in PDLSCs groups was reported.
Conclusions: The application of PDLSCs as one of tissue engineering components can impose beneficial effects on periodontal tissue regeneration in animal models. However, more human studies with higher quality are required to assess clinical efficacy of this method.