Involved Molecular Mechanisms in Stem Cells Differentiation into Chondrocyte: A Review

Document Type : Review Article


1 Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Chemical Injuries Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Stem cells are unique biological cells that can differentiate into specialized adipocytes. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells that break away from the blastocyst cell proliferation, and adult stem cells that are found in different tissues. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that are one of the most important adult stem cells. Due to their high proliferative capacity and the proper self-renewal ability, they have provided a powerful and promising source to use in the field of repair plaque. Also, MSCs can differentiate into several cell types, such as: osteoblasts (adipocytes), chondrocytes (chondrocytes), adipocytes (adipocytes) and myocytes (muscle cells). Because of the importance of MSCs as a source of autologous transplantation in the field of regenerative medicine, in depth studies of involved cell and molecular signaling cycles are needed. These cycles are the reason in which these cells are able to differentiate into other cell types. Also, the molecular changes that occur during these cells differentiation are needed to be closely examined. The role of cytokines, chemokines, and transcription factors on the process of differentiation of these cells is considered significant. The differentiation of MSCs into other cell lines is manipulated and stimulated by specific transcription factors associated with specific cell lines, thus, the important role of non-coding small mRNAs (miRNAs) is increased as a result. In the following study, the process of differentiation of MSCs into the chondrogenic lineage and the effect of several miRNAs on the regulation of the process of differentiation into adipose-derived stem cell cartilage have been scrutinized.