Oral Acute Toxicity, Influence on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota and In vivo Anti-Salmonellosis Effect of Zizyphus lotus (L.) and Ruta chalepensis (L.) Essential Oils

Document Type : Original Article


1 Laboratory of Bioconversion, Microbiological Engineering and Health Safety, Faculty of Life and Nature Sciences, University Mustapha Stambouli of Mascara, 29000, Algeria

2 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts & Science, Yildiz Technical University, TR34210 Istanbul, Turkey

3 AGIR Laboratory: Agents Infectieux, Résistance et Chimiothérapie. EA4294 UFR de Pharmacie, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France


Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of Z. lotus (ZL) and R. chalepensis (RC) Essential Oils (EOs), the oral acute toxicity, influence on the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, and the in vivo anti-salmonellosis effect.
Materials and Methods: The EOs were isolated using the steam distillation process, and bioactive components were identified by GC-MS analysis. Oral acute toxicity, influence on the GI flora composition, and the anti-salmonellosis effect were elucidated using in vivo methods on experimental animals.
Results: The GC-MS allowed us to identify 33 and 58 components in Z. lotus and R. chalepensis, respectively. Di-isooctyl phthalate (89.857%) was found to be the major compound identified in ZL. The main compounds in RC were 2-undecanone (26.528 %) followed by 2-nonanone (13.404 %). The LD50 of EOs was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg. Also, no negative influence to intestinal microbiota was detected. An important decrease in S. enterica ssp arizonae cells achieving a bactericidal effect was recorded in rats treated with the EOs of both plants at a dose of 400 mg/kg. In parallel, an important significant (p <0.05) increase in lymphocyte number was observed for all tested animals. A decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were observed. Furthermore, a reduced blood sedimentation rate (ESR) was recorded in treated animals.
Conclusions: The Z. lotus and R. chalepensis act effectively as anti-salmonellosis agents, which support the use of these plants to cure gastrointestinal infections.