Document Type : Review Article
Department of Biotechnology, College of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Addis Ababa Science and Technology University, Addis Ababa-16417, Ethiopia
Increased energy consumption leads to a reduction in limited nonrenewable resources called fossil fuels. Due to this fact, researchers look for alternative energy sources to satisfy the need of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. As a result, nowadays the production of energy from biological sources is highly applicable and takes advantage of fossil fuel due to the limited impact on the environment. On the other hand, food cost, land use for some other purposes, and carbon emissions have risen due to the increased production of first-generation bioethanol. Even though the second-generation bioethanol from lignocellulose agricultural waste solved this problem, it again faced difficulties-to-overcome technological barriers. This, in turn, pushed researchers to come up with another alternative called the third-generation biofuel production. The renewed promise is held in microalgae biomass as an alternative feedstock. This review deals with the important aspects of biofuel production from algae as a renewable resource. The production processes and their merits and demerits of algae capacity in producing biofuel are also discussed.