Document Type: Review Article
Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Parand Branch, Tehran, Iran
Molecular Biology Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Biology and Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Parand Branch, Tehran, Iran
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) which is literally defined as a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats is an adaptive immune system in bacteria, which enables them to detect and destroy the DNA of the virus. In fact, CRISPR is a defense mechanism in prokaryotic cells, which induces resistance to foreign genetic content, such as that found in the plasmid or phages.
The proteins involved in this mechanism are called Crisper associated proteins (CAS) which have the ability to search, cut and eventually transform phage DNA in a specific way. CAS is a protein with an enzymatic function which can be called nuclease, given the fact that it plays a special role in the DNA sequence and CRISPR arrays.
CRISPR technology allows changes in DNA, which enables to modify and make any changes to any gene in any living creature, much more accurately and better than all previous methods.