Document Type : Original Article
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Golestan Medical Science, Gorgan, Iran
Department of Pathobiology, Malekan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malekan, Iran
Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Introduction: Imperialine (Imp) is a steroidal alkaloid present as the main active constituent of medicinal herb, Fritillaria imperialis with many biological and therapeutic effects. However, it has not been investigated in vitro for hypoglycemic effects. Herein, the effects of Imp on cell survival, carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase), glucose uptake ability, insulin secretion levels, advanced glycation end product (AGEs) include pentosidine, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone levels and the activity of glyoxalase I as the main factor for degradation of AGEs are examined.
Materials and Methods: C2C12 skeletal muscle and beta-TC6 pancreatic cells incubated with Imp at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 10 µg/ml, and the cells evaluated separately. The biological evaluations were based on ultraviolet-visible (UV/VIS) spectrophotometric and/or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods.
Results: Imperialine had considerable and dose-dependent effects on glucose uptake and insulin secretion (p <0.05). The highest levels of glucose uptake were achieved at a concentration of 100 µg/ml of Imp. Increased glycation index, cytotoxicity, and decreased glyoxalase I activity appeared mostly at the concentrations of 75 microgram/ml and higher. The studied alkaloid demonstrated a remarkable hypoglycemic effect by inhibition of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.
Conclusions: Consequently, the results of the present study revealed possible hypoglycemic effects of Imp and it could be suggested for future studies in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.