Document Type : Original Article
Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Fasa Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fasa, Iran
Faculty of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran
Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Introduction: Some health instructions and proceedings were widely broadcasted and advised by scientific centers and social media concerning coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention, in the early days of the epidemic. Almost all of them had been sourced from narrative statements or non-evidence based sciences. Herein, we intended to deeply investigate the usefulness and efficiency of such recommendation on COVID-19 prevention.
Materials and Methods: Ninety-seven reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed positive COVID-19 individuals as case and 103 suffering from other diseases as control group were enrolled. To collect the data, an expert validated questionnaire encompassed demographic information, past medical history and pre-infection preventive proceedings (consumption of vitamin D3, C, and zinc supplement, wearing face masks and gloves, hand washing, keeping at least 1.5 m distance with other people and staying at home) was used. The data between two groups were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.
Results: There were significant differences in vitamin C, D3 and zinc consumption between COVID-19 (case) and non-COVID-19 (control) groups. Control group had higher consumption of these nutrients than case group (66 (64%) vs 41 (42.2%), OR=0.62, P = 0.001 for vitamin D3, 69 (66.9%) vs 48 (49%), OR=0.73, P = 0.012 for vitamin C and 31 (30%) vs 14 (14.4%), OR=0.45, P = 0.021 for zinc consumption). Physical protective care was significantly higher in non-COVID-19 patients. So that, they used more face masks, gloves or did more hand washing (77 (79.3%) vs 96 (93.2%), OR=0.82, 95% CI=0.71-0.93, P = 0.026). Keeping home quarantine and social distance were also significantly higher in patients without COVID-19 (OR=0.4, 95% CI=0.21-0.59, P = 0.001 and OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.19-0.63, P = 0.001, respectively).
Conclusions: General protective proceedings have significant protective roles against COVID-19.