Essential Oil Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Calamintha officinalis Moench

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Deparment of Biology, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

3 Department of Biology, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Lahijan, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Calamintha officinalis Moench (COM) is an aromatic herb from Lamiaceae family with high similarities to the common mints not only in its appearance but also in terms of aroma. The aim of this research was to evaluate antioxidant activity of plant extract and to identify constituents of its essential oil.
Material and Methods: The plant samples were collected from North of Iran (Guilan, Lahijan) and its identity was certified by a systematic botanist in University of Guilan. The dried leaves of COM were subjected to hydro-distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
Results: It was found that major constituents of oil were trans-caryophyllene (8.55%), isomenthol (2.98%), tetrahydrolinalyl acetate (2.96%), and pinene (2. 24%). In other part of the research, the biological activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were assayed by in extracts of the leaves spectrophotometric method. It was found the extract contained a considerable superoxide anion radical scavenging power. On the other hand, the biological activity of CAT in extract of COM leaves showed gradual increase during time with a gentle slope indicating an increase in oxidative stress.
Conclusions: The result of our study on Calamintha revealed the existence of a specific component of the essential oil (trans-caryophyllene) that has not been reported by other researchers. In addition to the antioxidant property that was confirmed in this study, the major component of its essential oil was found to be an antimicrobial agent.

Keywords


  1. Kamaliroosta L, Zolfaghari M, Shafiee S, Larijani K, Zojaji M. Chemical Identifications of Citrus Peels Essential Oils. J Food Biosci Technol. 2016;6(2):69-76.
  2. Bozovic M, Garzoli S, Sabatino M, et al. Essential Oil Extraction, Chemical Analysis and Anti-Candida Activity of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi subsp. glandulosa (Req.) Ball-New Approaches. Molecules. 2017;22(2). doi:10.3390/molecules22020203.
  3. Pellegrini M, Ricci A, Serio A, et al. Characterization of Essential Oils Obtained from Abruzzo Autochthonous Plants: Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities Assessment for Food Application. Foods. 2018;7(2). doi:10.3390/foods7020019.
  4. Burzo I, Mihaescu D, Dobrescu A, Ambarus S, Falticeanu M, Badulescu L. Contribution to the knowledge of the composition of the essential oils from five Calamintha species cultivated in Romania. Scientific Annals of Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi New Series, Section 2 Vegetal Biology. 2006;52:39-42.
  5. Verma M, Irchhaiya R, Singh P, Kailasiya D, Kanaujia V. Studies on antiulcer activity of essential oil of Calamintha officinalis moench. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2011;2(10):2733-2736. doi:10.13040/IJPSR.
  6. Ruiz-Ciau D, Cuevas-Glory L, Quijano L, Sauri-Duch E. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant DPPH Activity of the Floral and Leaves Essential Oils of cMontanoa speciosa DC. Am J Plant Sci. 2017;8(4):745-753. doi:10.4236/ajps.2017.84052.
  7. Monforte MT, Tzakou O, Nostro A, Zimbalatti V, Galati EM. Chemical composition and biological activities of Calamintha officinalis Moench essential oil. J Med Food. 2011;14(3):297-303. doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.0191.
  8. Salekjalali M, Haddad R, Jafari B. Effects of soil water shortages on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the contents of chlorophylls and proteins in barley. Am Eur J Agric Environ Sci. 2012;12(1):57-63.
  9. Burcul F, Generalic Mekinic I, Radan M, Rollin P, Blazevic I. Isothiocyanates: cholinesterase inhibiting, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2018;33(1):577- 582. doi:10.1080/14756366.2018.1442832.
  10. Siavoshi M, Laware SL. Organic Fertilizers Role on Antioxidant Enzymes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences. 2013;2(S2):1337-1342.
  11. Meenu Krishnan VG, Murugan K. Antioxidant potentiality of partially purified protease inhibitor from the fruits of African nightshade (Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq.). World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013;2(6):5166-5181.
  12. Rached-Kanouni M, Alatou D. Change in activity of antioxidative enzymes in leaves of Acacia retinodes, Biota orientalis and Casuarina equisetifolia under heat stress condition. Eur Sci J. 2013;9(24):402-410. doi:10.19044/esj.
  13. Pavlovic M, Kovacevic N, Tzakou O, Couladis M. Essential oil composition of Sanicula europaea L. Flavour Fragr J. 2006;21(4):687-689. doi:10.1002/ffj.1672.
  14. Rastakhiz N, Azar PA, Tehrani MS, Moradalizadeh M, Larijani K. Comparison of the chemical components of essential oil extracted by MAHD and SPME methods from two species of Salvia from Iran. Int J Life Sci. 2015;9(2):61-64. doi:10.3126/ijls.v9i2.12051.
  15. Babushok VI, Linstrom PJ, Zenkevich IG. Retention indices for frequently reported compounds of plant essential oils. J Phys Chem Ref Data. 2011;40(4):043101-43147. doi:10.1063/1.3653552.
  16. Hasnat A, Pervin M, Lim BO. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice. Molecules. 2013;18(6):6663- 6678. doi:10.3390/molecules18066663.
  17. Jainu M, Devi CSS. In Vitro. and In Vivo. Evaluation of Free-Radical Scavenging Potential of Cissus quadrangularis. Pharm Biol. 2005;43(9):773-779. doi:10.1080/13880200500406636.
  18. Astani A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:253643. doi:10.1093/ecam/nep187.
  19. Chavan MJ, Wakte PS, Shinde DB. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(2):149-151. doi:10.1016/j. phymed.2009.05.016.
  20. Bouchra C, Achouri M, Idrissi Hassani LM, Hmamouchi M. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;89(1):165-169. doi:10.1016/s0378- 8741(03)00275-7.
  21. Nickavar B, Mojab F. Hydrodistilled Volatile Constituents of Calamintha officinalis Moench from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2005;8(1):23-27. doi:10.1080/097206 0X.2005.10643416.
  22. Morteza-Semnani K, Akbarzadeh M. The Essential Oil Composition of Calamintha officinalis Moench from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2007;10(6):494-498. doi:10.1080/097206 0X.2007.10643585.
  23. Nostro A, Cannatelli MA, Morelli I, et al. Efficiency of Calamintha officinalis essential oil as preservative in two topical product types. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;97(2):395-401. doi:10.1111/j.1365- 2672.2004.02319.x.