Document Type: Review Article
Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Guilan, University Campus 2, Rasht, Iran
Molecular Medicine Department, Biotechnology Research Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Biochemistry, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
Organophosphorus compounds are highly toxic chemicals with application in production of warfare agents and agricultural pesticides. Detoxification of areas that have been exposed to these types of materials is of vital importance and several approaches have been used for this purpose. Biodegradation of organophosphates is one of these approaches that is in the center of attention due to its high performance and environmental friendly nature. The key components in this approach are enzymes. Like many other industrial processes that employ enzymes, biodegradation of organophosphates has its own limitations. During recent years researches have focused on addressing these limitations and devising new methods to overcome them. One possible method isimproving enzymatic formulations to gain decontamination systems with better detoxification efficiency. Immobilization has also been exercised in many ways to answer some of shortcomings in biodegradation of these compounds. Here, we will review enzymatic formulations of Organophosphates degrading enzymes with specific focus on polymer based approaches and immobilization techniques.