Document Type: Original Article
School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Sciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Sciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
School of Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Sciences, Taylor’s University, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Introduction: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) has received enormous attention, not only due to its negative influences on women’s life but also because of the escalating trend of fungal resistance towards current antifungal drugs. In recent decades, researches have been focusing on the development of natural products as the antifungal agents due to their low side effects compared to standard antifungal drugs.
Materials and Methods: The antifungal activity of curcumin, piperine, and tualang honey (TH) in single as well as in combinations were evaluated in this study. Agar well diffusion method was used and the zone of inhibitions was compared to the standard drug, fluconazole.
Results: The antifungal activity of these natural products alone was low and not all combinations were significant. Moreover, both curcumin and piperine are known to have low bioavailability that might limit its fungicidal efficiency. Hence, nanoemulsions of curcumin, piperine, and honey were then developed in this study. The nanoemulsions of three natural compounds have possessed favorable antifungal activity (more than 80%) against the wide range of Candida spp. Particularly, Candida albicans was more susceptible to these nanoemulsions compared to other species tested and some of them were the most resistant to fluconazole.
Conclusions: In concise, this study showed evidence in support of the therapeutic use of nanoemulsions of curcumin, piperine, and tualang honey in antifungal infections.